In order to have access to movement, the cerebellum needs to compare the difference between what we intend to do and what is actually feasible. Read more
Who would have thought that, of all things, knitting could be useful for more than comfortable sweaters? Read more
What has already been reported is that balance function is worse in ADHD children than in their normal peers. The studied reviewed here (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28238393) was designed to asses the effects of balance exercises on the cognitive performance of children with both ADHD and vestibular impairment.
33 children suffering from severe vestibular impairment were randomly assigned to two groups that were matched for age. Some of the children concerned performed balance, gait and eye movement exercises. The other group of children did not. It was twice a week, for 12 weeks that the chosen children performed the selected exercises.
Specific cognitive tests such as choice reaction time (CRT) and spatial working memory (SWM) were utilized to test for cognitive abilities for both groups.
As far as the CRT test goes, the children who performed the exercises performed significantly better than the children that did not.
Generally speaking, this study illustrates that vestibular rehabilitation can improve cognition.
When looking at the brain pathways involved, it can make sense to think that when the body is lacking balance, it can be harder to recruit brain areas specialized in tasks that relate to cognition. In essence, the body’s number one concern is survival. To secure body stability is primary.
The goal of the study reviewed here was investigate how motor function and perception relate to measures of ADHD (Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder), ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) and CD (Conduct Disorder).
Children with ASD and ADHD have been shown to have high rates of motor and perception difficulties in controlled studies.
Before ADHD ever was ADHD, in the 1980’s, Gillberg and Gillberg (1) introduced the concept of Deficits in Attention, Motor Control and Perception (DAMP) to describe the coexistence/co morbidity of ADHD and motor and/or perception problems, later often subsumed under the label of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD).
It is several Swedish studies that have shown that about half of all children with ADHD also meet the criteria for DCD and that these children have poorer outcomes than those with either ADHD without DCD.
CD is very common among children with ADHD (2) and not uncommon among children with ASD (3).
In the context of the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS), ADHD, ASD and CD caseness was associated with much higher rates of DCD and Perception disorder caseness. CD caseness in itself was not associated with DCD or Perception problems.
Children born prematurely have been shown to have a higher frequency of motor delays and motor difficulties than children born full term.
Omitting prematurely born children from the analysis strengthens that association between perceptual problems and ASD caseness. This shows that strong correlations between caseness for ADHD and ASD.
This study is probably the largest study ever performed on the relationship between symptoms relating to commonly diagnosed problems in child and adolescent psychiatry – ADHD, ASD, and CD – and motor control and perception problems – commonly encountered but often not separately diagnosed, either as DCD or under any other label.
Cerebellar function is of importance for motor function and seems to be of importance in ASD as well as in ADHD (4) (5).
Considering that the major source of input to the cerebellum arises from the muscle spindles of postural muscles, could it be that it’s time to make links between posture, motor performance and learning/behavioural challenges?
1) Gillberg IC, Gillberg C. Children with deficits in attention, motor control and perception (DAMP): need for specialist treatment. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1988;77:450–451. doi: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.1988.tb10678.x.
2) Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Mick E. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: diagnosis, lifespan, comorbidities, and neurobiology. Ambul Pediatr. 2007;7(Suppl 1):73–81.
3) Anckarsäter H, Larson T, Hansson SL, Carlström E, Ståhlberg O, Gillberg CI, Råstam M, Gillberg C, Lichtenstein P. Child neurodevelopmental and behavioural problems are intercorrelated and dimensionally distributed in the general population. Open Psychiatr J. 2008;2:5–11. doi: 10.2174/1874354400802010005.
4) Rogers TD, McKimm E, Dickson PE, Goldowitz D, Blaha CD, Mittleman G. Is autism a disease of the cerebellum? An integration of clinical and pre-clinical research. Front Syst Neurosci. 2013;7:15. e-pub ahead of print.
5) Fatemi SH, Aldinger KA, Ashwood P, Bauman ML, Blaha CD, Blatt GJ, Chauhan A, Chauhan V, Dager SR, Dickson PE, Estes AM, Goldowitz D, Heck DH, Kemper TL, King BH, Martin LA, Millen KJ, Mittleman G, Mosconi MW, Persico AM, Sweeney JA, Webb SJ, Welsh JP, Schneider M, von Gontard A. Consensus paper: pathological role of the cerebellum in autism. Cerebellum. 2012;11:777–807. doi: 10.1007/s12311-012-0355-9.
In France, we account for 2 dyslexic children per class. Dyslexia is a difficulty with regards to the alphabet, reading, writing and spelling, despite an intelligence that is average or superior to average and regardless of teaching methods and a positive influence on a socio-cultural level. If some believe it is of genetic origin and hereditary, others think we can fix it.
If we have forever considered that the vestibular system was the one that created balance in an unbalanced state, when looking at recent literature, one can consider that this primitive balance system is a component of much refined human functions. Read more
Some consider that motor control leads to the development of intelligence, in a broad way. Piaget was one of these individuals. Read more
If we consider that the development of motricity gives access to mobility, this takes place on 3 levels successively:
The first mechanism for locomotion is crawling. While it may not be absolutely necessary for standing upright and walking, there is some research that stipulates that is relevant if one wants optimal performance. This study (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2038537) highlights the importance of crawling for motor, cognitive and emotional mastery.
Kids that have crawled and kids that did not were assessed using the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers. This specific assessment actually focuses on motor and cognitive performance as well as emotional management (https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-1-4419-1698-3_625).
Crawling seems to be beneficial for you as a whole. If you somehow did not crawl and you are walking, isn’t time to hit the floor?