Worldwide, ADHD is seen in approximately 5.29% in the paediatric population and 3.4 % in adults. The disorder is more common in boys than girls. Read more
If it used to be thought that the cerebellum was made for movement and that the frontal cortex was made for cognitive functions, it is more and more obvious that it is not so black and white. Read more
It’s only been since just about 1998 that the cerebellum has been considered as more than just a brain part responsible for motor competencies. It was researcher Schmahmann that published three back-to-back game-changing papers in 1990, 1997 and 1998. All three investigated the role of the cerebellum in cognition, to some extent. Read more
This is not the first time and, based on recent findings in the literature, I believe it won’t be the last time I write about the non-motor roles of the cerebellum. Read more
If it’s true that we often think of the cerebellum as a motor component of the central nervous system, a body of research is emerging as to showcase its non-motor roles. The cerebellum has been most recently shown to be of interest in the cases of ADHD, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders and more.
This blog will delve into the contributions of the cerebellum in these three scenarios.
There are three diagnostic criteria for ADHD:
- Attention deficit;
If some believe that ADHD is a dysfunction of the frontal-sub cortical pathway, structural and functional neuro imaging studies show changes in the prefrontal cortex, cingulum, basal ganglia, corpus callosum, and cerebral total volume. It is important to note that it is via motor development that these areas are supposed to sync and grow in use.
To add to this, there are multiple studies that have reported cerebellar changes in ADHD.
Castellanos et al. scanned adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (age 15-18) as well as healthy controls, to measure changes over a decade of brain anatomy and volume.
They found volumetric abnormalities with reduced cerebrum and cerebellum size that increased with age.
Major depressive disorder (MDD)
To be diagnosed with MDD, one needs to experience at least one depressive episode that may involve both motor and cognitive symptoms.
Cognitive symptoms consist of difficulty concentrating or indecisiveness. They have been often linked to the prefrontal cortex and limbic system in MDD.
To add to this, in addition to these brain regions, patients with MDD have also shown various abnormalities in the cerebellum.
Yucel et al. found a significantly smaller vermis, an area responsible for the regulation of emotion and cognition, in MDD patients compared to healthy controls.
When one considers that the vermis is responsible for posture and locomotion, it could be interesting to study the effects of a postural intervention on MDD.
Anxiety disorders are associated with excessive fear and anxiety. These disorders are often accompanied by autonomic reactions, such as muscle tension and elevated heart rate.
It has been reported that impairment of the cerebellum could be linked to a few disorders where anxiety is present, such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and social anxiety disorder (SAD).
In conclusion, if one considers the possible effect that the cerebellum can have on someone’s health, maybe we should consider the relative importance of proprioception for performance, and that, on so many levels.
In order to have access to movement, the cerebellum needs to compare the difference between what we intend to do and what is actually feasible. Read more
Who would have thought that, of all things, knitting could be useful for more than comfortable sweaters? Read more
If the cerebral cortex is the brain region that best differentiates us from other species, the cerebellum is the part that is found behind the brain and it is responsible for many important functions:
– Coordination of movement: the cerebellum coordinates muscular activity so that the body can move fluidly.
– Balance: it receives data from the inner ear, which allows the cerebellum to contribute to keeping you upright.
– Vision: the cerebellum allows for coordination of ocular movements.
– Motor learning: the cerebellum helps in learning tasks such as riding a bike.
– Language and humor: we don’t know how precisely the cerebellum is involved her but we do know it is. Read more